1) Graphene oxide formerly called graphite oxide, graphitic oxide or graphitic acid, is a compound of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in variable ratios, obtained by treating graphite with strong oxidizers.
2) The maximally oxidized bulk product is yellow solid with C:O ratio between 2.1 and 2.9. It consists of loosely-bound layers, each being a two-dimensional arrangement of carbon atoms in the "chicken-wire" (graphene) pattern, with epoxide groups (bridging oxygen atoms) and hydroxyl groups attached to both sides.
Graphene Oxide Features:
Graphene oxide layers are about 1.1±0.2 nm thick. Scanning tunneling microscopy shows the presence of local regions where oxygen atoms are arranged in a rectangular pattern with lattice constant 0.27 nm x 0.41 nm. The edges of each layer are terminated with carboxyl and carbonyl groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the presence of carbon atoms in the non-oxygenated ring context (284.8 eV), in C-O (286.2 eV), in C=O (287.8 eV) and in O-C=O (289.0 eV).
Graphene Oxide Available Physical Size:
About 1.1 ± 0.2 nm thick
Graphene Oxide Typical Applications:
1) Graphene oxide has attracted much interest recently as a possible route for the large-scale production and manipulation of graphene, a material with extraordinary electronic properties. Graphene oxide itself is an insulator, almost a semiconductor, with differential conductivity between 1 and 5 x 10-3 S/cm at a bias voltage of 10 V. However, being hydrophilic, graphene oxide disperses readily in water, breaking up into macroscopic flakes, mostly one layer thick. In theory, chemical reduction of these flakes would yield a suspension of graphene flakes.
2) Partial reduction can be achieved by treating the suspended graphene oxide with hydrazine hydrate at 100oC for 24 hours, or by exposing graphene oxide to hydrogen plasma for a few seconds. However, the conductivity of the graphene obtained by this route ranges between 0.05 to 2 S/cm, and the charge mobility is between 2 to 200 cm2/Vs for holes and 0.5 to 30 cm2/Vs for electrons. These values are much greater than the oxide's, but still a few orders of magnitude lower than those of pristine graphene. Inspection with the atomic force microscope shows that the oxygen bonds distort the carbon layer, creating a pronounced intrinsic roughness in the oxide layers which persists after reduction. These defects also show up in Raman spectrum of graphene oxide.
3) Reduction methods have been developed that do not use chemical solutions and can be performed at room temperature. a consumer camera flash has been shown to decompose graphene oxide to graphene.
4) Dispersed graphene oxide flakes can also be sifted out of the dispersion (as in paper manufacture) and pressed to make an exceedingly strong graphene oxide paper. Primary Technical Information Source: Wikipedia
Graphene Oxide TSCA (SARA Title III) Status:
Listed. For further information please call the E.P.A. at +1.202.554.1404
Graphene Oxide Safety Notice:
Before using, user shall determine the suitability of the product for its intended use, and user assumes all risk and liability whatsoever in connection therewith.