- Atomic Cluster & Molecular Cluster Synonyms:
atomic pile, atomic flock, molecular pile, atomic cluster, molecular cluster, molecular flock, multiatom particles, atomic groups, molecular groups, metal clusters, diamond clusters,
- Atomic Cluster & Molecular Cluster Research:
a) A major thrust in the development of high-tech materials can be described as atomic-scale engineering. In this process, materials are assembled on an almost atom by atom basis in order to obtain useful properties not found in naturally-occurring substances.
b) Applications of this new technology can be found in many industries, but nowhere are they more vigorously sought than in the electronics industry, where making devices like transistors smaller and more efficient quickly translates into new and improved consumer products- and significant new profits for manufacturers.
a) There is currently a strong interest in the prospect of producing new materials consisting of small atomic clusters. Such cluster-assembled materials may vary significantly from their crystalline counterparts.
b) Mechanical, electronic, optical and other properties are expected to be different for such assemblies which should make them good potential candidates as new building materials for electronic devices. Also, the quantum effects which occur in such materials of finite size and dimension, lead to their special properties.
a) Advances in techniques for the synthesis of cluster-engineered materials containing controlled nanostructures provide the capability of preparing new classes of materials with enhanced optical, magnetic, chemical sensor and photocatalytic properties. Some have proposed an integrated research effort based on three independent but mutually supportive preparative technologies to develop and characterize materials constructed from nanoparticle assemblies.
b) These technologies include: laser ablation/molecular beam methods for preparing atomic clusters (2-1000 atoms) which can be deposited on nanoscale templates, nanosphere lift-off lithography for preparing periodic arrays of particles in two or three dimensions with feature sizes down to the ten nanometer range, and molecular self-assembly methodology for making functionalized materials that combine biological macromolecules (particularly DNA) with metal nanoparticles.
c) Four types of materials will be prepared: (1) chemical sensors that combine the organism-specific binding capabilities of DNA together with aggregation-specific optical properties of metal nanoparticles, (2) new classes of photocatalysts and of photoluminescent devices engineered from atomic clusters of Ti and Si, (3) materials targeted for efficient frequency conversion of low-power, semiconductor diode lasers through the use of three dimensional arrays of metal and nonlinear optical nanoparticles, and (4) ultrahigh density magnetic storage materials built from arrays of single magnetic domain nanoparticles.
d) Supporting this work will be an integrated theoretical modeling program that emphasizes continuum electrodynamics calculations on the nanoparticle assemblies, and electronic structure characterization of size-dependent cluster structure, nonlinear optical properties and molecular conductance. Spectroscopic characterization of the materials will be provided by scanning microscopies, surface enhanced linear and nonlinear spectroscopies, near-field optics and x-ray characterization.
- Atomic Cluster & Molecular Cluster Chemical Properties Available:
a) Diamond nanoclusters
b) Metal clusters
- Atomic Cluster & Molecular Cluster TSCA (SARA Title III) Status:
Unknown. For further information please call the E.P.A. at 1.202.554.1404
- Atomic Cluster & Molecular Cluster Safety Notice:
a) Before using atomic & molecular cluster derived materials, the user shall determine the suitability of the product for its intended use, and user assumes all risk and liability whatsoever in connection therewith.
b) Please visit and read this excellent "Approaches To Safe Nanotechnology" document from the CDC & NIOSH.
c) With the publication of the "Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology" document, NIOSH hopes to: raise awareness of the occupational safety and health issues involved with nanotechnology; make recommendations on occupational safety and health best practices in the production and use of nanomaterials; facilitate dialogue between NIOSH and its external partners in industry, labor and academia; respond to requests for authoritative safety and health guidelines; and, identify information gaps and areas for future study and research.
d) You can contact the Center For Disease Control (CDC) at +1–800–232–4636 or by email at: <